Back in the day SEO (late 90s/early 00s) meant optimising pages for keywords, now neural networks are here. Is data science changing SEO?

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In the old days of SEO (the late 90s/early 90s), the idea was to optimise pages for keywords and if done correctly the page would rank for that keyword. If the SEO practitioner had done their research properly, the keywords selected would match the correct audience intent. Traffic would arrive, conversions would flow, money would be made and everyone would be happy.

Nowadays things are no so straight forward as the search engines have become particularly good…


Image classification is a hot topic in data science with the past few years seeing huge improvements in many areas. It has a lot of applications everywhere including SEO. But how is this done?

What a convoluted neural network sees — image from https://medium.com/@akshay.43279/a-machine-learning-approach-to-predict-diabetic-patient-hospital-readmissions-contd-part-14-f73a7f15edf0

In part one of this series, I talked about the most basic type of neural networks (dense layer neural networks) and showed how to implement one in Python using Keras (with Tensorflow) to implement a basic image classifier.

In part 2 of this series I will be talking about a slightly more complicated type of neural network architecture using convolutional layers. Convolutional neural networks generally perform…


Image classification is a hot topic in data science with the past few years seeing huge improvements in many areas. It has a lot of applications everywhere, but how is this done?.

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A deep neural network is a network of artificial neurons organised into layers (via software). With each layer connected to the next and each connection having a weight that helps determine how much the artificial neuron fires. This firing helps determine how strong the connections are between layers, and in general neurons that fire together have stronger connections. Just like with biological neurons.

How strong these connections are…


There are articles out there on this already and a lot of them address the ‘what’ and the ‘why, but there is a gap in ‘how’. Here is my attempt to address that.

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Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) is the discipline of using knowledge gained around how search engines work to build websites and publish content that can be found on search engines by the right people at the right time.

Some people say that you don’t really need SEO and they take a Field of Dreams ‘build it and they shall come’ approach. The size of the SEO industry is predicted to be $80 billion by the end of 2020. There are at least some people who like to hedge their bets.

An often-quoted statistic is that Google’s ranking algorithm contains more than…


Reverse engineering Google PageSpeed Insights with machine learning

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An often-quoted statistic by Ericsson ConsumerLab is that waiting for a slow loading web page on a mobile device creates as much stress as watching a horror film. A study by Cloud Flare showed the connection between page speed and website conversion rate and if a webpage takes longer than 4 seconds to load on a mobile device, the conversion rate drops to less than 1%.

Page speed is an important thing, especially now that the mobile web has become more prevalent. Google has been stating since 2009 that their goal is to ‘make the web faster’ and between then-and-now…


Everyone in the data science world seems to use Macs for their work, but what if you need to use Windows? This is what you need to know.

Image Courtesy of Sai Kiran Anagani from Unsplash

Is there a way back to Windows after using a Mac for data science? The short answer to that question is ‘yes, there is’ and this is a technical article that will tell you how to do that should you want to. I’m not intending to start a Mac vs. Windows debate as I’ve come across people on both sides that have a fanatical devotion to both platforms.

For me, it is purely a pragmatic approach to a problem of what to buy for my next laptop, however along the way I have picked up some learnings that I’d like…


My name is Sandy Lee, I’ve worked in Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and now I am a freelance SEO consultant on a journey to become a data scientist with the Flat Iron School. My mum has no idea what I do for a living.

It isn’t difficult (or so I tell myself), it is marketing with computers but you don’t pay for the advertisements. Simples. It would seem however that it isn’t just my Mum who doesn’t fully understand what SEO is and after turning to the wisdom of the Internet I can see how widespread the confusion actually is:


They really weren’t kidding when they said that most of our time would be spent collecting and shaping data for a data science project. Here I would like to highlight how useful virtual machine’s and cloud computing can be on this journey.

What is a virtual machine (vm)?

A virtual machine, as the name implies is a virtual computer that runs in software instead if hardware.

Inception jokes aside what this means is that you have your computers main operating system (the host operating system) running as normal and accessing all system resources (e.g. the processor, hard drive and graphics) and basically managing everything. …


I’m a fledgling data scientist, but I have been using Excel for 20 years and have hard earned knowledge and experience. I can get most things done in Excel in a very short amount of time. Having to go back to square one with using Pandas was a tough journey and not one I found intuitive. I don’t think I am the only fledgling data scientst to take one of the smaller data sets we play with (a CSV maybe?), …

Sandy Lee

I am data scientist and SEO Consultant looking for ways of how best to apply data science techniques to uncover actionable insights for search

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